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To access articles in the Library for this class and others, please refer to the instructions on the Syllabus and in Case 1.
For this assignment, you will use one of the scholarly research articles you chose for the SLP in this module.
Look at the subheadings below and make sure you choose an article that will have enough information to complete the assignment. You will not earn points by stating that the article did not include all of the information required to answer each part of the assignment.
It is your responsibility to find an article that does contain the information.
Note: This assignment asks for more information than you provided in the previous module, so please be sure to read the instructions.
Before you begin writing, review the subheadings again and make sure the article you chose has all of the information needed to
complete the assignment. If it does not, you should search again for a suitable article. If you are unsure of how to proceed, please
ask for clarification before you start your paper.
Write a 2-page summary of the article, using the exact same subheadings listed below, in the exact same order, and following the
instructions below. You only have to write a couple of sentences under each subheading.
Your summary must be written in your own words. I already know that the authors of the article can identify their purpose, hypothesis,
etc. so copying the information from the article will not show me what you understand. Do not copy/paste or simply paraphrase. Explain
each section to me so I can see what you learned from reading the article.
The purpose of this assignment is to show that you can identify these sections of a research article. This is an exercise in critical
thinking — it is never ok to simply copy or paraphrase the article’s abstract.
Introduction: Write a couple of sentences to introduce the topic you chose.
Reference: This should be so accurate that the reader can go directly from the abstract to the original article. Give a complete APA
style reference.
Kind of research: Identify the kind of research, i.e., experimental, quasi-experimental, observational (descriptive, case study,
historical, etc.). Although the article may not be a clear example of one of these, it can usually be classified under one of these.
Purpose: Sometimes the purpose is stated as an aim, an objective, or a goal. At other times, it is incorporated in a statement of a
problem, leaving the reader to infer the purpose has a stated problem, a purpose, or both. In case the purpose is inferred, you may
state it in your own words.
Design: If the article is an experimental or quasi-experimental research, it is usually possible to identify the design of the study.
Descriptive and historical research articles may or may not have a design that can be categorized. Try to identify the design for each
article. Comment if you are unable to determine the design, and explain why.
Participants: The term “participant” refers to the sample studied. Under this heading you should include a description of ages, sexes,
socio-economic status, school grade, mental level, number, and/or any other demographic characteristics given in the article to
describe the particular sample used in the study.
Procedure: Sometimes the procedure is referred to as the “method” and includes a description of control techniques, measuring devices,
materials used and ways of proceeding, in attempting to achieve the purpose or purposes of the study. Are measures of validity and
reliability reported by the author? If so, what measures were used? When such are not reported it should be so stated.
Variables: Identify the variables in the study. Identify the independent and dependent variables. The independent variables are usually
the cause, stimulus, antecedent treatment or the identified groups (males-females; young couples, middle aged couples, mature couples;
Baptist, Catholics, Methodists, Mormans; upper class, middle class, lower class; etc.) whereas the dependent variable is usually the
effect, response, or consequence.
Level of Measurement (data): Although this is often unclear, you should try to identify the level of measurement such as nominal,
ordinal, interval, and/or ratio.
Instrumentation: The names of the instruments (if any) used in the study should be listed. This would include such things as: The
Maryland Parent Attitude Survey (MPAS), the Locke-Wallas Marital Adjustment Test (MAT), the Taylor-Johnson Temperament Test (TJTT), or
other tests named in the article.
Sample: Sample refers to whether the sample(s) is related (dependent) or non-related (independent). Related sample usually means that
the different scores represent the same individuals or logically connected individuals (spouses, daughters, sons, mothers, fathers,
etc.) whereas independent samples refer to different groups.
Sampling Technique: Sampling technique refers to such things as random sampling, cluster sampling, selected sampling, stratified
sampling, time sampling, volunteers, solicited, snowball sampling, intact groups, etc.
Statistical Tests: List the statistical tests used in the article; examples might be chi square (x2), t-test, f-test, Mann-Whitney,
Results or Findings: These should be confined to actual data reported by the author.
Conclusions: Conclusions are the generalizations that the author believes the results or findings justify. These should be expressed in
the language of the author.
Critique: Up until now, you have been telling me about what the authors of the article described. In this part of the paper, please
give your own opinion about the study (not about the topic, but about the way the study was done). Please comment on the study’s
strengths and any possible weaknesses or limitations.
ASSIGNMENT EXPECTATIONS: Please read before completing assignments.
Copy the actual assignment from this page onto the cover page of your paper (do this for all papers in all courses).
Assignment should be 1 – 2 pages in length (double-spaced). You are not restricted to a certain number of words, as you would be if you
were preparing an abstract for publication.
Please use major sections corresponding to the major points of the assignment, and where appropriate use sub-sections (with headings).
Remember to write in a scientific manner (try to avoid using the first person except when describing a relevant personal experience).
Quoted material should not exceed 10% of the total paper (since the focus of these assignments is on independent thinking and critical
analysis). Use your own words and build on the ideas of others.
When material is copied verbatim from external sources, it MUST be properly cited. This means that material copied verbatim must be
enclosed in quotes and the reference should be cited either within the text or with a footnote.
Use of peer-reviewed articles is required. Websites as references are not acceptable for this assignment. Part I
The ongoing struggle to avoid BIAS:
In every part of the enterprise of performing research in health science, a researcher needs to take great pains to avoid the dreaded
possibility of BIAS.
BIAS, or error, can come about in any number of ways during the process of defining the question, collecting the data and analyzing it.
It can also happen from random causes; what I like to refer to the “stuff happens” effect. But this is by definition beyond
the researcher’s control.
In every way that can possibly be anticipated, there is a need to control for known sources of bias. If the data is BIASED towards a
certain outcome that does not reflect reality, then a meaningful or useful answer to the original question has not been obtained.
Once the researcher has defined the question, the next step will be to find a way to obtain subjects that minimizes the potential for
creating bias through the selection procedure.
Obtaining subjects for study – data collection methods:
Data is the word we use for the information that we collect in order to do our research (the singular for this word is datum but we
rarely use it.)
(Click here for a Presentation on Types of Data)
Data collection is also known as sampling. It might not seem obvious, but HOW you go about obtaining your subjects can be as crucial to
the validity of your outcome as the question you ask and the type of statistical procedure you decide to use to analyze your data.
There are two broad categories of data collection in research:
Probability sampling
Non-probability sampling
Probability sampling is also called random sampling and is considered to be the most powerful and desirable method because
theoretically each member of the larger population from which the sample is drawn had an equal chance of being chosen.
Of course, it may occur to you that this can be very easy to imagine, but very hard to execute. Even if you have complete control over


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